1. Neurosurg Rev. Jul;32(3); discussion doi: /s Epub May The Canon of Medicine (Kitab al-Qanun fi al-tibb) by Ibn Sina (the illuminated opening of the 4th book). A rare complete copy made in Iran probably at the begin. A historical approach could help in the detection of some viewpoints that cannot be paid attention to or signified by a purely medical one.

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If it is effective on both, we cannot judge which condition benefited directly from the drug. Although Ibn Sina’s writings on this subject, in comparison with his vast output qanuj other subjects, are in fact considered to be very scarce, we do nonetheless find he deals with the same problems that confront educators today. Then, that part which goes to the brain to keep it vital and functioning, becomes colder and wetter, and in its composition the serous softness and phlegm vapor dominate.

What does Al-Qanun Fi Al-Tibb (the Canon of Medicine) say on head injuries?

The Qanun is divided into five books parts. Serous humour resembles blood and is necessary for fip tissues for two reasons: Avicenna’s thesis on the elements of the cosmos is described by Gruner as “the foundation of qanin whole Canon “. The substances are simple in the sense of not being compounded with other substances.

The direct benefit relates to the [phlegm], and the indirect refers to the fever. In the fourth period, both vigor and intelligence decline.

The Canon of Medicine | work by Avicenna |

At first, it [proper soul] enters the master organs such as the brain, liver or reproductive organs; from there it goes to other organs while the nature of the soul is being modified in each [of them]. The secondary fluids are separated into “non-excrementitious” and “excrementitious”. What is more, it also refers to subjects such as obesity and emaciation that affect the appearance, and preventive methods and measures for all of these are discussed.


Rukmani Kumari Rathore rrathore christies.

It is possible that the drug was effective because it dissolved the phlegm or removed it; when the [phlegm] disappeared the fever disappeared. Scammony, if used to treat a cold disease, would no doubt have a warming effect and bring benefit. Xavier Fournier xfournier christies. London 26 October In other projects Wikimedia Commons.

The period up to the limit of growth of the body to the beginning of adult life. Roger Bacon and the beginnings of experimental science in Britain.

He was also the first to point out the fact that haematuria yibb be due to causes outside the urinary system, for example, blood diseases. Medicine in the medieval Islamic world. Book 2 the Materia Medica of the Canon alphabetically lists about “simple” medical substances that were used at the time. Some are “simple members” or “elementary tissue” such as bone, cartilage and tendons.

Soon after, eleven complete incunables were published, followed by fourteen more Latin editions in the 16th century until The Canon contains seven rules for experimenting with new drugs, taken partly from Galen. The Canon divides life into four “periods” and then subdivides the first period into five separate categories. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. We say experimenting leads to knowledge of the potency of a medicine with certainty after taking into consideration certain conditions.


Each entry contains the substance’s name, its criteria of goodness which sometimes describes how the substance is found in natureand its nature or primary qualities. The drawing of Ibn Sina on a Polish stamp.

If the drug has an immediate effect, this shows that it has acted against the disease itself. Fevers related to serous humour Rheumatism. The material cause, the efficient cause, the formal cause, and the final cause: Inflammations become febrile Loss of vigour. This section describes blood and compares its healthy states with its unhealthy states.

The Canon of Medicine

He favoured proven remedies which had been tested through experience, cautioning that compounds could have unexpected or much stronger effects than might be expected from the effects of the individual components.

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Theories and Substances” PDF. The miniatures shown here are the three basic stages of a physician’s visit with a patient: It is possible that the drug acted directly against one disease, and acted against the symptom of the other. Sometimes during their application against coldness, their function for producing warmth is weakened. Avicenna describes healthy blood as “red in colour, has no unpleasant odour, and has a very sweet taste. Behnaz Atighi Qznun batighimoghaddam christies.