View Contents. Hiponatremia, h.. BIBLIOGRAFÍA. Hiponatremia, hipernatremia y mortalidad en pacientes con nefropatía crónica. Mary E. Choi; Joseph Loscalzo. farsightedness, long-sightedness, hyperopia CD hipermetropía f hipernatremia f hypacusis CE) hipoacusia f hipocapnia f hypocapnia CD hipo- capnia f hipocinesia f ® hypokinesia CE) hi- + m) hipocrómico E«> hypochromic CE) . Hiponatremia e hipernatremia. Jose Miguel Castellón. Hiponatremia hipernatremia. fernandomolinalino. Fisiopatologia trastornos del Sodio.

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Hypernatremic dehydration HND in exclusively breastfed newborns NBs is a health problem that started being featured in the literature in the s. Some authors have found an association between HND and high sodium concentrations in the breast milk of mothers that have difficulty BF, with absence of the physiological reduction in the concentration of this electrolyte 2, This condition is underdiagnosed, as it presents with nonspecific symptoms such as lethargy, although some patients become irritable instead.

Although the actual incidence of HND in Spain is unknown, it is considered a significant hhipo health problem due to its repercussions; the estimated incidence is 1.

In light of these results, it seems advisable to provide information on the warning signs at the time of discharge from the maternity ward, and to schedule the first checkup for the baby at an earlier time. Reference of this article.: As occurred in previously published case series, excessive weight loss from birth was a frequent feature, as was the appearance of urate crystals in the urine 14, We have summarised qualitative variables as frequencies with confidence intervals, and quantitative variables as medians with the corresponding interquartile range.

Out of the 22 NBs discharged with a diagnostic code of hypernatremic dehydration, 20 met the criteria for inclusion and 2 were excluded due to evidence of a triggering disease thrombophilia, urinary tract infection [UTI] The mean incidence during the year under study was 0.

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare in relation to the preparation and publication of this article. In the remaining cases, the family visited the emergency department in our hospital of their own initiative.

HIPONATREMIA – Definition and synonyms of hiponatremia in the Portuguese dictionary

The primary variable under study was the serum sodium level measured in a venous blood sample. Rev Pediatr Aten Primaria. The most frequent reasons for seeking care were weight loss, jaundice and irritability.


The overall frequency of HND in our sample 0. None of the patients died or had severe complications. Our study is the first in Spain to calculate hipernstremia incidence of HND in newborns after discharge, identifying primiparity as a relevant maternal risk factor.

There are few studies on its incidence in Spain.

Furthermore, the baby may show signs of dehydration such as dry mucous membranes, a sunken fontanel, poor skin turgora malnourished appearance, jaundice, fever, oliguria or anuria or neurologic abnormalities. We collected data on epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, treatment and outcome variables through the review of health hipernateemia, followed by their statistical analysis.

Table 1 summarises the demographic and clinical characteristic of the newborns and their mothers. Severe neonatal hypernatremic dehydratation in the initiation of the breastfeeding: Its onset typically occurs at about 8 days post birth, varying between 2 and 14 days depending on the study.

The mean gestational age at birth was The metabolic comorbidities found in our study were similar to those described hupernatremia other studies in Hipernatremiq, with mild acidosis detected in half of our sample, although our patients did not develop the disorders described in other case series while they received treatment to correct the acidosis 21, Other, less frequent reasons to seek care were refusal to feed and appearance of urate crystals in the diaper. The median percentage of weight loss relative to the birth weight was The medium serum creatine level in our sample was 0.

Translation of “hipernatremia” in English

The risk factors for HND described in the literature include inadequate feeding of NBs poor breastfeeding [BF] technique, poor sucking or low milk supplypreterm birth, small for gestational age or low birth weight, maternal primiparity, caesarean delivery, or failure of mothers to identify signs of inadequate feeding early on 4, As reference for Spain, the incidence of hypernatremia per live births found in a study in Asturias was 0.

Other variables we took into account were maternal age, parity, type of delivery, sex, gestational age at birth, chronological age at admission, weight at birth, at admission and at discharge, temperature at admission, type of feeding, presence of clinical signs of dehydration, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen BUN and urea levels at admission, serum glucose level at admission, referral to our hospital, previous assessment by another health professional, length of stay in days, admission to the paediatric intensive care unit PICUneed for additional diagnostic tests, presence of complications, comorbidity and mortality.


There were no deaths among the patients in our sample. We believe that BF provides the best nutrition for the infant, but that it requires adequate monitoring, as having the first routine child wellness checkup early on, at day 7 post birth, could help reduce the incidence of lactation failure and HND.

Meaning of “hiponatremia” in the Portuguese dictionary

Twenty met the inclusion criteria. We compared our results for the most important epidemiologic variables with the findings of previous studies. The median serum sodium level was RESULTS We estimated the size of the susceptible population during the period under study at 41 newborns, which corresponded to the newborns delivered in the maternity departments of one secondary level hospital and one tertiary level hospital that are both part of the public health system in the catchment area of our sample.

The presenting complaints are summarised in Table 1: The scheduling of a first appointment at the end of the first week of life could help prevent HND associated with BF or at least reduce its incidence, and also support BF, preventing early discontinuation of BF due to inefficient technique or maternal discouragement Most mothers in our sample were primiparous, and the median maternal age was 34 years, which was consistent with previous studies where the median ages of the mothers age were 30 17 and 34 years, We were able to conduct the study thanks to hupo standardisation of our electronic health records.

We excluded patients with underlying conditions or concomitant infection. We excluded patients born preterm, with concomitant infectious disease, with underlying disease or who died of unknown causes during the study.