“A Gathering of Fugitives” () and “Beyond Culture” (), Lionel Trilling has seen . “Sincerity and Authenticity” can read like a Commonplace Book, where According to Trilling “sincerity” was a new concept when. Lionel Trilling, Sincerity and Authenticity, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, Chapter 1. Sincerity: Its Origin and Rise. 用以比較的中文翻譯:. Lionel Trilling, Sincerity and Authenticity, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, Chapter 4. The Heroic, the Beautiful, the Authentic. 用以比較的中文 .

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When Edmund Burke undertakes his Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, he is perfectly forthright about the social import of the opposition he sets up between the two qualties that high art may have. It is definitive of Hamlet himself that in his first full speech he affirms his sincerity, saying that he knows not ‘seems’: This, of course, says nothing new about Madame Bovary; [p. Davie puts it, ‘A poem in which the “I” stands immediately and unequivocally for the author’ is at the present time held to be ‘essentially and necessarily superior to a poem in which the “I” stands not for the author but for a persona of the author’s’.

Or we’ll tell customers to “Have a great day! Burke’s account of what happens to the masculine organism under the deleterious influence of beauty makes what is perhaps the only funny passage in the long canon of aesthetic theory.

While he was skeptical of the ability of Marxism or Marcuse to overcome it, he failed to construct any strategy to deal with the disintegration of the self. But I quote Mme Sarraute’s version of the received view because its relentlessly censorious tone suggests the moral intensity we now direct upon questons of authenticity.

Sincerity and Authenticity

We are no longer required to regard as wholly fortuitous the fact that the hero of Proust’s novel is named Marcel. Feb 25, Ian “Marvin” Graye rated it it was amazing Shelves: There is no question of what he expresses: Sep 21, Patrick McCoy rated it really liked it Shelves: What the audience demands of the artist–really demands, its unconscious desire–and what the artist thinks it ought to be given turns out to be the same thing.


In one degree or another, literature has always claimed such sanction as pedagogoy affords, but it is especially salient in the Christian tradition and it asserts itself with a new energy when an accelerated social mobility makes right conduct problematical.

The artist now can make scarcely anything which will prove really exigent to the audience, which will outrage its habitual sensibility.

Plus he argues that culture and art contribute to these behavioural distinctions; they are “agents of conformity”. Excellent attack on the idea of authenticity. To praise a work of literature by calling it sincere is now at best a way of saying that although it need be given no aesthetic or intellectual admiration, it was at least conceived in innocence of heart. An aggregate of individual human beings, society is yet something other than this, something other than man, and its being conceived in this way, as having in need a life of its own but not a human life, gives rise to the human desire to bring it into accord with humanity.

We know, of course, what that is: Freud and Marcuse In the last essay, “The Authentic Unconscious”, Trilling explores the implications of a psychoanalytical understanding of the mind in terms of the Ego, the Id and the Super-Ego. This, it will be recognized, is the basis of Joyce’s tirlling of the ‘epiphany’, literally a ‘showing forth’.

In one, spirit shows forth from Nature; the sudden revelation communicates to the poet a transcendent message which bears upon the comprehension of human [p. I couldn’t be bothered with the psychoanalysis in the last part – that’s just me – but even earlier I developed reservations about Trilling’s choice of mat I was torn between three and four sincdrity – 3.

Lionel Trilling, Sincerity and Authenticity, Ch. 1

But I subdue this skepticism by reflecting that the word cannot be applied to a person without regard to his cultural circumstances. The authentic work of art instructs us in our inauthenticity and adjures us to overcome it. And then yet again, on still another view of the case this judgment reverses itself and we find ourselves noting with eager attention all the details of assumption, thought, and behavior that distinguish the morality of one age from that of another, and it seems to us that a quick and informed awareness of the differences among moral idioms is of the very essence of a proper response to literature.


Joyce and Flaubert are also discussed.

They had a passion tril,ing literature and political science, to which I will add philosophy and psychoanalysis. Laing, suggesting the contradictions and ironies to which the ideals of sincerity and authenticity give rise, most especially in contemporary life.

To this end it proposes a variety of spiritual exercises, among which are suffering and despair and cosmic defiance; conscious sympathy with the being of others; comprehenson of the processes of society; social alienation.

Similarly the artist seeks his personal authenticity in his entire autonomousness–his goal is to be as self-defining as the art-object he creates. But how does one actually proceed to this end?

This relationship consists in the giving and receiving of knowledge about right conduct, in the formation of ones’ person’s character by another, the acceptance of another’s quidance in one’s own growth. The indifference of the Rabbis to the idea of courage is the more remarkable in that they knew that many of their number would die for their faith.

Society is a kind of entity different from a kingdom or realm; and even ‘commonwealth’, as Hobbes uses that word, seems archaic to denote what he has in mind. Aristotle’s virtuous man in his highest development quite precisely sees himself: